APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF JOHAN CRUYFF TO DATA SCIENCE
With such an ambitious goal, the Barça Innovation Hub has presented its research at this year’s world-renowned MIT Sloan Sports Analytics international conference.
One of today’s most attention-grabbing topics among sports researchers, coaches and managers have to do with the study of maximal demand scenarios, also known as “worst case scenarios”. In recent years, we’ve seen a number of new studies that describe the demands of competition in different sports – with a particular focus on these moments of maximal activity (Martín-García et al., 2018). Recently, an article was published in the International Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research in which the authors compare the activity of these maximal demand scenarios during competition, with the average demands of two very common training tasks currently in use: 4 vs. 4 situations in a 39 x 39 m space (152 m2 per player) and 6 vs. 6 situations in a 47 x 43 m space (144 m2 per player), both of which include goalkeepers as part of the exercise. During the games that were analyzed, an average match value was obtained for each of the physical variables studied. In addition, the highest value was obtained via the Rolling average method over 5-minute periods. The results of the study show how these types of training situations – in terms of distance covered per minute – do not reach the values for the maximal demand scenario within an actual match (137.0 ± 9.9 m·min-1). They show values close to those obtained for the match average (match average = 117.2 ± 8.6 m·min-1; 115.9 ± 8.9 and 106.4 ± 11.4 m·min-1 in 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6, respectively). These differences between match demand (peak and average) and the training task demands are maximized when we analyze runs performed at high speed (>19.8 km·h-1) and at a sprint (>25.2 km·h-1). However, these short-sided game situations do appear to replicate the demands of the maximum demand scenarios in actual competition with respect to accelerations·min-1 and player load·min-1, with higher values in the smaller format (4 vs. 4 + goalkeepers in 39 x 39 m). Furthermore, in both training situations, the values obtained exceed those obtained in the match average, both in terms of the acceleration variable as well as player load per minute.
Therefore, as it has been demonstrated in previous studies, these types of training tasks do not appear to allow players experience situations close to those demanded by official matches in terms of total distance covered and runs performed at high speed and at a sprint. Given that much literature has emerged in recent years supporting the need to include sprint stimuli in an athlete’s preparation with the objective of minimizing injury risk (Malone et al., 2018), it seems appropriate to supplement training with other types of practices. Furthermore, as we seek to optimize our players’ state of physical conditioning, it seems necessary to include stimuli that approach or even exceed the demands of competition. As such, it is appropriate to include other types of tasks in addition to those proposed by the researchers responsible for this study. Playing situations with larger spatial dimensions (Castellano and Casamichana, 2016), finishing situations involving few players and a large space (Ade et al., 2014), analytical situations focused on intermittent running (Lacome et al., 2018), or repeat sprints (Rodríguez-Fernández et al., 2017) may be alternatives in this process of optimizing the players’ state of physical conditioning.
Ade, J.D., Harley, J.A., & Bradley, P.S. (2014). Physiological response, time-motion characteristics, and reproducibility of various speed-endurance drills in elite youth soccer players: small-sided games versus generic running. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 9(3):471-9.
Castellano, J. and Casamichana, D. (2016). El arte de planificar en fútbol. Futboldelibro.
Dalen, T., Sandmæl, S., Stevens, T.G.A., Hjelde, G.H., Kjøsnes, T.N., & Wisløff, U. (2019). Differences in Acceleration and High-Intensity Activities Between Small-Sided Games and Peak Periods of Official Matches in Elite Soccer Players. J Strength Cond Res, DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003081. [Epub ahead of print]
Lacome, M., Simpson, B.M., Cholley, Y., Lambert, P., & Buchheit, M. (2018). Small-Sided Games in Elite Soccer: Does One Size Fit All? Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 1;13(5):568-576.
Malone, S., Owen, A., Mendes, B., Hughes, B., Collins, K., & Gabbett, T.J. (2018). High-speed running and sprinting as an injury risk factor in soccer: Can well-developed physical qualities reduce the risk? J Sci Med Sport. 2018 Mar;21(3):257-262.
Martín-García, A., Casamichana, D., Díaz, A.G., Cos, F., & Gabbett, T.J. (2018). Positional Differences in the Most Demanding Passages of Play in Football Competition. J Sports Sci Med. 2018 Nov 20;17(4):563-570.
Rodríguez-Fernández, A., Sánchez Sánchez, J., Rodríguez-Marroyo, J.A., Casamichana, D., & Villa, J.G. (2017). Effects of 5-week pre-season small-sided-game-based training on repeat sprint ability. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 57(5):529-536. ¡
Mental abilities, although not yet fully appreciated, are already considered a relevant part of performance. But their importance could go beyond that: Do they also influence the injury risk, including recurrence, once the player returns to play?
Although several studies have tried to evaluate the characteristics of the risk of injury in handball players, they have been unable to reach sufficiently reliable conclusions. A new study of all the FC Barcelona handball categories has attempted to shed more light on the subject.
Although there are several studies on this topic, many of them have analyzed these demands by looking at just a few variables or using very broad timeframes. A new study completed by physical trainers from F.C. Barcelona has analyzed several of these details more closely.
An article published in The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine —in which members of the club’s medical services participated— now suggests to consider the detailed structure of the area affected, and treating the extracellular matrix as an essential player in the prognosis of the injury.
In this article, Tim Gabbett and his team provide a user-friendly guide for practitioners when describing the general purpose of load management to coaches.
For the first time, it has been demonstrated that it does not take months of training to significantly improve both muscle volume and strength; instead, two weeks of an appropriate exercise are enough.
The understanding of the modifying variables of the game, based on the degrees of freedom.
Training using eccentric exercises is important to prevent possible damage. However, intensive training can also cause muscle damage, so it is critical to be vigilant in order to keep injury risk to an absolute minimum.
The importance of building a game model in football.
Cardiovascular endurance manifests as a moderator of the load result to which the athlete is exposed.
Through the use of computer vision we can identify some shortcomings in the body orientation of players in different game situations.